Synopsis– Backend technology is liable for the manner of the site functionality, updates, and changes. Picking the right backend technologies behind the application is the first and the foremost basic step of this long procedure. There is a bunch of choices accessible while picking the correct backend technology you need to work with and each backend framework carries its own baggage of advantages and disadvantages alongside some considerable factors for settling on the ultimate decision.
In this feature, we’ll investigate both existing and fresh frameworks to assist you with the conclusion regarding the best backend structure.
Frameworks have become an important part of web development as the sophistication of the technology required for web applications continues to rise. It’s utterly impractical to try to reinvent the wheel with such advanced strategies, assuming you can do so.
Often modern web developers create their frameworks and development tools to speed up, streamline, and simplify their work. Web developers aim to keep up with the latest developments in web technology by using these methods.
A good web developer must be fast, adaptable, and dependable when it comes to completing tasks using best practices. The command of any programming language should be the most important thing for any web developer. They should also be kept up to date with the most recent technological developments.
As a result, creating rich and immersive web applications with frameworks supported by thousands of developers worldwide is a very sensible solution. Since a web app has a backend (server-side), we cover both backend frameworks.
Backend Technologies are the libraries of server-side languages that guide in creating the server configuration of any website. It is crucial to practice the right technology for creating sites or you can genuinely influence your application use.
Backend is the server-side of the software that stores and analyzes data and guarantees smooth application performance. Backend developers take on a scope of duties, like writing APIs, and libraries and working with framework parts, business cycles, and data architecture. Being a cycle that stays undetectable for clients, backend development sends and gets data, speaks with the frontend, and shows the data as a website page.
Frontend and backend technologies are the most fundamental terms of software development. Backend Technologies are responsible for the server-side, while frontend tools refer to the client-side of the application. The two sides need to work faultlessly for the software solution to be viable and responsive.
Factors to consider in choosing the right backend technologies
Project’s appearance– Basic applications within the timeline, particularly MVPs need a distinct methodology in comparison to enormous products with heaps of functionalities. But, if you figure out to upscale later on for growth, always pick an adaptable stack.
product type– there are various kinds of products that are likely to need different stacks like Data-intensive apps, booking systems, social networking apps, streaming apps, CMS, IoT, FinTech apps, marketplaces, and easy MVPs.
Project’s price– open-source tools are usually free and good for commercial practice. This is advantageous for both developers and stakeholders. Apart from this, other tools are paid and licensed and prices are depending upon the developer’s capabilities which is fluctuating. But the niche stacks can be considered costly indeed. Furthermore, remember that the launch isn’t the end work on the application, you also need to maintain, upgrade, and conceivably upscale it.
Issue Domain – Every innovation has its own business use, and utilizing that benefit will settle the decision cycle more smooth out. For instance, .NET is the favored decision for flexible and business web application building. If you are searching for enormous data analysis, for example, forecasting weather conditions then Python may be the most ideal choice. If enterprise-level security for a business-to-business application is basic; you will probably need to explore utilizing Java. In this way, your assessment should consider the issues you want to address and your business case, and sort of clients.
Language Characteristics – There are various languages accessible to programmers. Be that as it may, how about we limit the conversation to the languages which are famous and broadly utilized. Every language has various attributes, networks, support, and ecosystems that impact the dynamic interaction.
Technical Skill – Picking the right back-end innovation needs sound information on frameworks, languages, servers, and so on. The decision on technology will rely upon the technical capacity of the group. The accessibility of a talented workforce will fluctuate by geography. Participating in meetups, client gatherings, and co-working spaces to draw in local ability that can assist in working with joining aptitude. Eventually, your expenses for developers will go up if the abilities you want are not promptly available or are popular. On the other hand, the enterprise can outsource the web application to technology-based businesses.
9 parameters when choosing a Backend technology
Each structure has its pros and cons based on its different types of experienced issues, yet it doesn’t imply that they are non-existent. However, at that point, there are necessary pointers to remember while selecting the right backend framework.
1. Convention– in convention, when we make an interpretation of this idea into the backend frameworks domain, it means to structures that have standard and predefined functionalities, the developer doesn’t have to carry out them. Convention is a normalized, generalized training, and usually taken by a huge community.
Pre-defined and time consuming functionalities
Black boxes or hidden codes
Extensive and broad community
Difficult to debug
Extra security required
2. Configuration– the configuration don’t have many characterized “conventions” executed, but instead pass on those implementations to the developers. They might not have authentication modules, predefined database management interfaces, among others and Control is entirely in the possession of the users.
Long development time
Complex for new programmers
3. Execution– These measurements are one of the most significant yet generally hard to measure in light of the fact that conceptually the importance of execution/speed lies in various perspectives. However, to work with the conceptualization practices, we can build up to it as the effect of a request on framework assets like memory, CPU, disk, among others.
One more significant point is the capacity with regards to simultaneous requests that can be taken care of in a specific timeframe. Although every application does not really need a database, it is also important to see how significant the connection between our structure and it will be. Since this can significantly affect execution relying upon our requirements.
4.Community– This is an essential moment to choose the correct framework since having a huge community recommends that it has better help or documentation. Likewise, potential errors that the programmer might confront, might have been recorded/settled by others.
5.Programming language– while picking a structure can genuinely diminish it to pick which programming language we need to practice and to make that decision there are a couple of variables to think about in advance like, intricacy or learning curve, versatility, community, noticeable quality, execution, domain, or reason.
6.Company’s current stage- At every stage of your enterprise, your technology stack is critical. If you’re just getting started, your primary goal should be to get the MVP out as soon as possible. Any language/framework/CMS tool that allows you to put together a working prototype quickly should be a good match.
7. Demands of the project– Understand the project’s specifications before deciding on a tech stack. Is real-time functionality, such as a chatbot or live chat required for your app? In such instances, a concurrency-friendly tech stack, such as Node, should be used.
8. Resource availability- One of the most important considerations in determining your company’s technology stack is developers’ availability who will produce your product. Examine if your developers are eager and capable of working with the technology stack you’ve selected.
9. Cost of Development and Maintenance- The technology stack has a direct impact on the cost of construction. Developers must be highly qualified professionals, and the expense of recruiting them varies depending on the technology they use.
The 5 best web development backend Technologies
1. Express js
Express.js or simply Express is an open-source and free framework that can be used for Node.js. It is a Sinatra-inspired server. This means that it’s minimal. Express is a Node.js application that is lightweight and fast. It adds a thin layer of basic web application functionality without obscuring Node.js capabilities. Furthermore, using the numerous HTTP functionality methods and middleware accessible, it’s simple to create a robust API. Express is used by several common server-side and full-stack frameworks, including Feathers, KeystoneJS, MEAN, Sails, etc.
The official description on the website of Express states: Express is a fast, unopinionated minimalist web framework for Node.js.Express was founded by TJ Holowaychuk in early 2010. Later in 2014, the rights were acquired by StrongLoop
Excellent routing API
Minimalist and unprejudiced The setup is simple, and the learning curve is minimal. There are a lot of plugins to choose from.
Advantages of Express Js:
Scalability : With Express, you can quickly scale your application in any manner, using the advantage of its support for Node.js and additional sources.
Duality : Express is a combination package. You can use it to code both Front-end and Back-end technologies using Express. Several platforms enable that, but not quite efficiently as Express does.
Cost-management : Since Express is a Full-stack development framework, it can save you tons of bucks, which you would have to pay if you had to hire a developer for the front end separately.
The architecture of Express.JS is not without bugs that can impact the operating cycle.
Express’s most significant disadvantage is that there is no well-specified way of doing things, particularly for beginners.
Why is Express js popular?
Many insightful statements about a tool’s impressive functionality and usable solutions can be heard. The most important factor, however, is its efficiency. Under this context, the most suitable metric for defining efficiency is the number of requests handled per second. Many web apps use this metric because the millisecond delay time is less critical than absolute throughput efficiency.
Companies that trust their Back-end technologies responsibilities with Express: MySpace : We don’t even need to introduce this website. MySpace was a popular blogging site in the early 2000s. MySpace uses Express for its Back-end technologies development. Netflix : Netflix is one of the most popular video streaming platforms in the entire world. Netflix switched to Express to leverage their performance. NASA : NASA is the pioneer of aeronautics. They were facing difficulties in accessing databases for research purposes. That access was slow and required rummaging. So, NASA switched to Express which dramatically improved their database access timing.
Accenture, IBM, Uber, and a slew of other companies use it, and it’s compatible with other systems like Kraken, Sails, and Loopback.
When to use Express js?
Building Single-page, Multi-page, and Hybrid Web Applications: Express.js is highly efficient in managing multiple routes and templates for these applications. With support for various middleware, Express.js can handle HTTP requests, render pages with dynamic content, and do a lot more.
Building APIs: Express.js is commonly used to build RESTful APIs due to its robust routing mechanisms. APIs built with Express.js can serve mobile applications, web applications, or be used as a backend for single-page applications.
Real-Time Applications: Express.js can be combined with Socket.IO to build real-time applications like chat applications, collaborative tools, and live-updating interfaces.
Microservices: Express.js can be used to build microservices for large enterprise applications. With Express, each microservice can be a small Express application that communicates with others through HTTP or a message queue.
Content Management Systems (CMS): Express.js can be used in conjunction with database systems like MongoDB, PostgreSQL, etc., to manage and deliver content dynamically.
E-commerce Applications: With the appropriate setup, Express.js can be used to manage various parts of an e-commerce application, including user authentication, product management, cart, and checkout.
Laravel is a PHP-based backend system that is known for its elegant syntax, ability to support large teams, and modern toolkit features. Laravel was designed to allow for comprehensive backend creation and fits the MVC architectural template. Laravel also has a powerful ecosystem and its own database migration scheme.
The most significant benefit of the Laravel system over others is that it uses many of PHP’s modern features. The majority of other systems are unable to accomplish this. You can use many new features offered by PHP with Laravel 5, such as interfaces, overloading, simpler array syntax, namespaces, and anonymous functions.
Top Key Features of Laravel:
Eloquent ORM: Eloquent provides a simple and intuitive Active Record implementation for working with databases, allowing you to interact with your database as if you’re working with PHP objects. Blade Templating Engine: Blade is a powerful, intuitive templating engine that allows you to build complex layouts and sections with ease, including inheritance and sections. Artisan Console: Artisan is Laravel’s command-line interface, including numerous helpful commands for common tasks. Routing System: Laravel provides an intuitive method for defining web routes, with the flexibility to handle complex applications. Middleware Support: Laravel uses middleware for URL routing, session management, CSRF protection, and more, allowing you to add extra layers of functionality before HTTP requests hit your application. Task Scheduling: Laravel’s scheduler allows you to fluently and expressively define your command schedule within Laravel itself, eliminating the need for external task scheduling. Queues & Jobs: Laravel offers a unified API across various queue backends, allowing you to defer long-running tasks for later processing. Authentication & Authorization: Laravel makes implementing authentication and authorization very simple, nearly out-of-the-box, with a straightforward and configurable system. Database Migrations and Seeding: Migrations offer version control for your database, while seeding helps to populate your database with initial or dummy data.
Advantages of Laravel:
Authorization : Every website owner wants their website to secure and safe. It is needed to be sure that the user is who he claims he is since some places require gaining access to security/pay portals. Laravel provides a very simple yet effective way of authorization with logic and control while accessing information.
Mailing : When you think of a website, it is almost impossible to not think of it having mail. Mail is required to send out notifications about registration, various events, offers, etc., Laravel provides support for notification delivery via various channels through a local or cloud-based service. Laravel opts for a clean and simple API, instead of the popular SwiftMailer library.
Binding of tools : It is crucial to create fast applications, as this accelerates the revenue. The Binding of caching is important to improve performance. Laravel largely supports Memcached. By default, it is set to use the file cache driver. With Laravel, one can even customize various cache configurations.
Fixing the Vulnerabilities : Security-related loose ends go hand in hand with web applications. SQL injection, cross-site scripting, etc., happen to be a couple of them. One must keep in mind to fix them before it is run. Laravel’s codebase is strongly secure and guarded, this, in turn, helps in getting the major vulnerabilities out of the land.
Error handling : User satisfaction is mainly based on how the software handles various errors. Most errors are countered when a user hits the submit button on a form. If it’s something that the user did wrong, he/she needs to be notified about it with an informative error message. If he/she isn’t informed this will make them think that the website is not working, or out of service which will further push them to not use it ever again. Laravel is configured with the Monolog logging library which supports a good number of log handlers. This will reduce errors and exceptions.
When to use Laravel?
Centered on object-oriented programming principles and the MVC architecture, Laravel can be used to create not only websites but also mobile apps. Laravel developers can build solutions of any complexity and size, from one-page websites to full-fledged social networks, thanks to a large range of built-in tools.
Laravel is a feature-rich, modern PHP framework that can be used in a variety of situations due to its robust features, ease of use, and scalability. Here are some specific scenarios where Laravel can be a great choice:
Complex Web Applications: Laravel is a full-stack framework equipped with an ORM, templating engine, routing system, and security features, making it suitable for developing large-scale, complex web applications.
API Development: Laravel provides features like resourceful routing, responses, and transformation classes, making it easy to build RESTful APIs.
Rapid Prototyping: Laravel’s artisan command-line tool, combined with its elegant syntax and built-in functions, can help in quickly building a prototype of your web application.
Content Management Systems (CMS): Laravel’s robust features can be utilized to develop a custom CMS. You can define your data structure, and Laravel’s ORM, Eloquent, can be used to interact with your database efficiently.
E-commerce Platforms: Laravel is well-suited for creating e-commerce platforms because it can handle complex business logic, user authentication, and secure transactions. Packages like Laravel Cashier can simplify handling subscription billing services.
Social Networking Websites: Laravel’s support for robust session management, caching, authentication, and broadcasting events makes it a strong candidate for developing social networking websites.
Real-time Applications: Laravel supports broadcasting events over WebSocket and provides real-time functionality out of the box with Laravel Echo. It can be used to develop real-time apps like instant messaging, live tracking, etc.
Software as a Service (SaaS) applications: Laravel, with its multi-tenancy support, database migration system, task scheduling, and robust security features, is an excellent choice for developing SaaS applications.
Enterprise Applications: Laravel is a good choice for enterprise applications due to its ability to maintain code readability and scalability, ability to integrate with various databases, and security features. Laravel’s event-driven design pattern can also help keep various components decoupled, making the code easier to manage.
Companies Using Laravel
With its elegant and easy syntax pattern, database migration and schema builder software, simple and stable authentication method, and many other features, Laravel is a PHP MVC (Model View Controller) system that speeds up the development process.
9GAG : 9gag is a social media and an online platform. It allows users to share witty content. 9gag uses PHP, Laravel, and Vue.js for the better functioning of their website.
BBC : BBC is one of the well-renowned broadcasting organizations. Traditional media aside, they also happen to run multi platform applications. They use Laravel along with Angular, for an overall great experience.
Ratio : Ratio is a UK-based financial management website, it is an innovation of Fintech. They use Laravel and React.js for efficient browsing and product experience.
Pfizer : Known as one of the largest pharmaceutical brands in the world, Pfizer, utilizes Laravel in the career section of their website.
TourRadar : Known for its ways of helping travellers compare and book their tours, TourRadar uses Laravel as a backend framework.
Crowdcube : CrowdCube is one of the largest crowdfunding platforms. They primarily use Laravel/MySQL coupled with a couple more frameworks.
LoopBack is a highly scalable open-source platform for building APIs and connecting them to backend data sources with little or no coding. In summary, it’s placed on top of Express. It includes a series of Node.js frameworks that can be used separately or together to quickly create REST APIs for client applications (anything from the web to browsers).
Key Features of loopback:
LoopBack is a highly extensible, open-source Node.js framework built for developing APIs and microservices. Here are some of its key features:
Powerful CLI: LoopBack’s command-line interface facilitates the rapid creation of models, data sources, and other application components, accelerating development time.
Dynamic APIs: LoopBack automatically creates RESTful APIs from your models, offering Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations without the need for manual coding.
Data Integration: LoopBack provides connectors for popular databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, MongoDB, and more. This enables easy integration with various databases.
Model Relations: LoopBack allows defining relations between different models, similar to traditional ORMs, offering a structured way to organize your data and functionality.
Authentication and Authorization: LoopBack has built-in user model and OAuth 2.0 providers to facilitate secure authentication and authorization.
Middleware: LoopBack utilizes Express-style middleware, providing a simple way to control the flow of requests and manage various processes like logging, error handling, etc.
API Explorer: LoopBack offers an interactive API explorer which allows developers to test API endpoints, understand request/response formats, and debug issues.
Extensible: You can extend LoopBack’s capabilities by installing Node.js modules, or by creating plugins, mixins, boot scripts, and more.
Client SDKs: LoopBack offers client SDKs for Android, iOS, and Angular, enabling seamless integration of these platforms with LoopBack APIs.
When to use LoopBack?
When a network interface is disconnected—for example, when an Ethernet port is unplugged, or Wi-Fi is switched off or not associated with an access point—no contact, including communication between your device and itself, is possible on that interface.
It’s an excellent choice for a variety of situations:
Rapid API Development: If you need to quickly scaffold and develop REST APIs, LoopBack’s ability to automatically generate CRUD operations from data models can be invaluable.
Microservices Architecture: LoopBack is a good choice for building microservices because of its ability to create lightweight, standalone services.
Real-Time Applications: With its integration capabilities with WebSockets via libraries like Socket.IO, LoopBack is a good choice for real-time applications, like chat apps, live notifications, etc.
Multi-Datasource Applications: LoopBack supports a variety of databases, both SQL and NoSQL. If your application needs to pull data from different databases or switch between databases, LoopBack can be very beneficial.
Integration Projects: If your project needs to integrate with various third-party services and databases, LoopBack’s extensive set of connectors can simplify this process.
IoT Applications: LoopBack is an excellent choice for Internet of Things (IoT) applications because of its capability to handle many simultaneous connections and its ability to push updates to clients in real-time.
Multi-Tenant Applications: If you’re building a SaaS or multi-tenant application where each tenant might need a separate database, LoopBack’s ability to handle multiple data sources can be very useful.
Companies using Loopback
4. Ruby on Rails
Since Ruby on Rails is open-source software, you can not only use it for free but also contribute to its improvement. Rails have now received over 5,000 contributions of code. It’s not as difficult as you would think to join them.
Top Features of Ruby on Ralis:
Ruby on Rails is a well-known and dependable open-source MVC platform. It was created to make web application creation easier and faster. Furthermore, it enables developers to write less code than any other platform.
Here are some of its standout features:
Convention over Configuration: Rails provides a set of conventions that eliminate the need for tedious setup and configuration, which can significantly speed up the development process.
Active Record ORM: Rails uses the Active Record ORM for handling databases, allowing developers to interact with databases without having to write SQL code.
MVC Architecture: Rails follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern, promoting organized and manageable code.
RESTful Application Design: Rails promotes RESTful design for application architecture, which makes applications more scalable and maintainable.
DRY Principle: Rails follows the Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) principle to ensure that every piece of knowledge has a single, unambiguous, authoritative representation in the system.
Automated Testing: Rails promotes Test-Driven Development (TDD) and comes with built-in testing tools, making it easier for developers to write and run tests.
Security Features: Rails includes several built-in security features, including protection against cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF), and SQL injection attacks.
Powerful CLI: Rails comes with a powerful command-line interface that provides a number of useful commands to speed up development and manage various aspects of the application.
Disadvantages of Ruby on Ralis:
When compared to other development frameworks, Ruby on Rails has a rather sluggish runtime.
Its boot speed is not up to par, causing it to perform poorly.
It’s difficult for a developer to find documentation for Ruby on Rails’ codes and configurations.
Multithreading is not supported by Ruby on Rails, unlike Java and other frameworks..
Companies using Ruby on Rails
Spring MVC is a Java application framework that allows you to create and develop Java applications. Furthermore, Spring MVC offers excellent features for developing applications on the Java EE platform. Spring MVC is a free and open-source platform.
Unique Features of Spring:
Here are some of the key components and features that make Spring a powerful tool for backend development: Spring Boot: This is a project built on top of the Spring Framework that simplifies its setup and usage. It offers auto-configuration and standalone-code capabilities, making it easy to create Spring applications with minimal configuration. Spring MVC: This is the web framework part of Spring, which uses the Model-View-Controller design pattern. It’s used for building web applications and RESTful services. Spring Data: This project makes it easier to work with databases by providing a consistent, Spring-based programming model that supports various data access technologies like JPA, Hibernate, JDBC, MongoDB, Redis, and many more. Spring Security: This provides a comprehensive security solution for Java applications, offering out-of-the-box protection against a wide range of threats (like CSRF attacks, SQL injection, etc.). It also provides ways to handle authentication and authorization. Spring Cloud: This is a set of tools for building and managing cloud-native applications and microservices. It offers capabilities such as service discovery, configuration management, circuit breakers, intelligent routing, and more. Dependency Injection: Spring’s Dependency Injection (DI) capabilities make it easy to develop loosely coupled applications, which are easier to test and maintain. Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP): This programming paradigm, supported by Spring, allows developers to modularize cross-cutting concerns, like logging and transaction management. Batch Processing: Spring Batch provides robust and scalable solutions for batch processing, making it easy to handle large volumes of records.
Companies using Spring
Comparison table: Express js vs Laravel, Loopback
Pros and Cons
(from original table)
Gives packages for making API, Adaptable, Easy. Cons include Obstructive error messages, Not ideal for heavy applications
High-speed performance due to Node.js’ non-blocking IO, suitable for I/O intensive applications
Middleware architecture allowing flexible and customizable routing and response handling
Scalability can be a challenge for larger and more complex applications
Minimal built-in testing support. External libraries such as Mocha, Chai, Jest are used
Good compatibility with microservices as it is lightweight and modular
Supports NoSQL databases like MongoDB and others through ORM like Mongoose
Quick structure cycle, Proven and factual details, Huge web developer community on GitHub. Cons include issues while performing, Reverse routing challenging
Good performance but slower compared to Express.js due to the overhead of its rich features
MVC architecture which promotes clean and DRY code
Highly scalable using tools like Laravel Horizon for handling multiple jobs and events
Built-in testing with PHPUnit and Mockery
Supports microservices with Lumen, a lightweight micro-framework by Laravel
Supports MySQL, SQLite, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server
Large community, hence hiring is relatively easy
Full stack development with built-in models and features, Good ORM. Cons include Rigid structure, Steep learning curve, Difficult to use in huge projects
Optimized for APIs and microservices, performance is comparable to Express.js
Supports both MVC and MVVM architectures
Provides features for horizontal scaling but steep learning curve may impact scalability
Built-in testing features and additional support from the community
Built with microservices in mind, hence compatibility is high
Supports SQL and NoSQL databases, and provides connectors for a wide range of databases
Smaller community hence it might be more difficult to hire developers
Ruby on Rails
Convention over configuration, Quick bootstrap, Great testing framework. Cons might include slower performance, steep learning curve
Performance is good for small to medium applications but might be slower for large-scale applications due to its abstraction and convenience
MVC architecture promoting DRY principle
Great scalability if used correctly, but may require additional services for large-scale applications
Built-in support for testing with Minitest and good community support
Can be used in a microservices architecture but may not be as lightweight as other options
Supports multiple databases like MySQL, SQLite, and PostgreSQL
Large community, so hiring developers would be relatively easy
In a nutshell
Determining which project should be written in which language may be challenging for a startup founder or a corporate decision-maker. In several cases, multiple options for bringing the project to life may be successfully implemented. Finding a team that can execute the idea in the best possible way in the shortest period of time is critical. To get the best results, the development team can use the resources that they specialize in.
Online application frameworks have transformed the landscape of programming languages and have become critical in creating any web app. A software interface automates the process of an application’s most important function that involves coding.
There are several backend architectures to choose from, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. It’s difficult to say which backend framework is the best because it depends on what you’re trying to accomplish, the learning curve you’ll have to conquer, and so on. That said, hopefully, this list of the best backend frameworks will help you decide which one to use, whether you’re starting a new project or just brushing up on the basics