What is software testing? Objectives, Principles, categories

automation testing October 12, 2022

Software testing is a process of validating and verifying that a piece of software meets the requirements that were set for it. The objective of software testing is to find bugs in the code, so that they can be fixed before the product is released.

Software testing is performed throughout the development lifecycle by various people and methods, with different objectives. Software testing can be done manually or with automation. Testing may be focused on finding defects or it may be more exploratory in nature. Software testing happens at many points in time during a project’s life cycle.


What is Software Risk

What are Software Testing and its core objective

Principles of Software Testing

Software Testing Life Cycle

Software Testing Categories

Future of Software Testing

What is Software Risk?

Software risks are the potential for a software product to fail to meet its expected goals. They could be anything from an error message to a complete crash, or something more subtle, like your computer slowing down over time as the program runs longer and longer.

Types of Software Risks:

Software risks are the biggest threat to your business. They can cause significant financial loss and even put your business at risk. Here are several types of software risks:

1. Scalability risks


The main risk is that a software solution does not scale well. This could be due to the software being written in a language or framework that is not easily scaled or because the system architecture was designed poorly. In either case, this can lead to performance issues and downtime for your customers.

2. Accessibility risks


Accessibility risk is the risk that a software application will not be accessible to those who need it. It can occur because of a lack of accessibility features or features that are inaccessible to those who need them.

Accessibility risks are an emerging area of research and practice, with many organizations just beginning to address them. While there is no standard way to evaluate accessibility risks, they can be identified by looking at how users can use software applications effectively and efficiently.

3. Reliability risks


Reliability refers to the likelihood that a system performs its intended function when called upon. In this context, reliability measures how well the system will perform in real-world conditions instead of controlled laboratory conditions. The most common causes of unreliability are software bugs and hardware failures.

4. Usability risks


Usability refers to how easily users can complete their work with the software application or tested system. The goal of usability testing is to ensure that the developed product meets the needs of its intended audience—the people who will use it daily—and allows them to be as efficient as possible.

5. Coherence risks


Coherence risks arise when an application’s internal state is inconsistent with the data it stores or when it makes invalid changes to its internal state. A good example of a coherence risk is a race condition—if two threads are writing to the same variable. One thread is doing so before the other has finished reading from it. The result will be unpredictable.

6. Security risks


Security risks are caused by incorrect use of libraries or system calls or failing to implement proper access controls on resources such as files or network connections. Insecure execution of code can allow attackers to inject malware into a running process by overwriting memory pages belonging to that process with malicious instructions that cause harm when executed by the processor.

7. Testability risks


The risk of being unable to test a software product because of how it is implemented. For example, if your application uses a database backend, you need to test the functionality that interacts with the database. However, if you use an ORM (Object Relational Mapper) and your database is abstracted from the code at runtime. There may be no way for you to test the code that interacts with the database.

8. Functional risks


Functional risks include an application failing to deliver on its functional requirements. These risks can be caused by a lack of understanding of business requirements or user needs, insufficient design time to address these needs, insufficient resources to implement a given feature, and other issues related to functionality.

9. Performance risks


Performance risks are when there is a risk that the software will not perform as expected or that it will take longer than expected to complete tasks. Performance risks can be caused by several things, including latency, bandwidth issues, and memory leaks.

Performance risks may be mitigated by improving the codebase’s efficiency. This could include optimizing algorithms or adjusting the timing of operations to reduce latency. If there are performance issues with specific parts of the codebase, it might be helpful to isolate those parts and test them individually before considering optimizing them further.

10. Convenience risks


Convenience risks are risks that the software will not be convenient for its users. For example, if you were building an app for salespeople and wanted to make sure it was easy for them to use your app on their phones (because they’re constantly on the go), then making sure it was super simple and user-friendly would be an important convenience risk.

11. Understandability risks


Understandability risks are the chances that a software product will be misunderstood by its users. This can happen when the interface is unintuitive or conflicts with users’ needs or expectations. The risk of understandability is multiplied when the software is used in a new context (e.g., an online learning platform to teach a physical skill).

This risk can be mitigated through user testing, allowing developers to observe how users interact with the product and make adjustments as necessary.

Software Risks can cause serious damage

Software risks are a major risk to the success of any software product. They can cause major software breakdowns and damage that can cost millions of dollars to fix.

For example, in the case of missile software, failure of the software could result in a missile not being launched correctly or not at all. The consequences could be catastrophic for national security if this were to happen.

What are Software Testing and its core objective?

Software testing aims to validate that a system performs its intended functions correctly, reliably, and at an acceptable level of efficiency. Testing often includes notionally dividing the system under test into component subsystems (or units) and exercising each to verify their proper operation. The objective of Software Testing is to ensure that the software works as expected.

1. Verify and validate the completeness of the software product


The software testing objectives are to verify and validate the completeness of the software product. This is done using test cases and test data created using case diagrams. The testing team uses these test cases and data to identify system defects. The defects found during this phase will be reported back to the development team so that they can fix them before releasing their product.

2. Check if the product meets business and technical requirements


Software testing aims to ensure that the product meets the requirements outlined in its business and technical requirements and that developers can maintain it.

Software testing is performed throughout the development process, but it is most commonly done after requirements are set, and the final product is released. This ensures that any issues with meeting requirements are identified and addressed before they become too expensive to fix or cause problems with maintenance.

3. Identify technical bugs and ensure that software glitch-free


The primary objective of software testing is to identify technical bugs and ensure that the software is glitch-free. It involves a systematic approach to finding errors in the software that other testing methods may not detect.

In addition to identifying bugs, software testing ensures that the product meets customer requirements, conforms to standards, and performs as expected.

4. Generate high-quality test cases and issue correct problem reports

Software testing aims to generate high-quality test cases that are correct, comprehensive, and maintainable. To achieve this, a software tester needs to be able to:

1. Identify the purpose of the software being tested

2. Identify the requirements for testing the software

3. Identify any limitations or constraints related to testing the software

Principles of Software Testing

In software testing, the principle of equivalence is the idea that a test case should be able to find bugs occurring in all software versions. This is a good way to test for bugs that may not have been fixed yet.

Principles of Software Testing

1. Detecting Bugs


The primary goal of software testing is to detect bugs or defects in the software, and the importance of this cannot be overstated. In fact, it’s the most important thing that you can do with your software testing.

If you don’t find bugs in your software, nobody will ever know it has them. And if nobody knows about them, then they’ll never be fixed!

Bugs are a necessary part of any development process—even when you’re writing new code from scratch. Software testing allows you to find those bugs before they make it into production and cause problems for your customers (and their customers).

2. Exhaustive Testing is impossible


This is because the number of possible combinations of inputs to a computer program is far greater than the number of atoms in the observable universe.

To give you some perspective: if someone were to ask you to list all the possible arguments you could pass to a particular function, how long would it take? That depends on how many arguments there are, right? Well, if I asked you to list all the possible arguments, you could pass to a function with one argument… well… we’ll be here for a while.

This is why software testing exists: because exhaustive Testing is impossible!

3. Early testing


“Early testing” is a principle of software testing that refers to testing software as soon as possible in the development process rather than waiting until later stages to reduce costs. This allows for more thorough Testing and less chance of defects being introduced into the codebase, which can be costly to fix.

4. Defect clustering


Defect clustering is one of the most important concepts in software testing. It is also one of the most misunderstood.

Defect clustering is when similar defects are grouped, which can happen for several reasons.

For example, two different parts of the code might not be communicating with each other properly, so errors occur in both areas. Or one error could cause another error to occur in a completely different part of the program.

This is why testers need to look at all aspects of a product when trying to find and fix bugs—especially when using automated testing tools like Selenium or Appium.

5. Context dependant


Context-dependent Testing is a form of black box testing. This approach focuses on the functionality and behaviour of the software and its interaction with the user. The context-dependent tests are designed to ensure that the software behaves consistently, regardless of who uses it or what environment it operates in.

Context-independent tests (also known as white box testing) can be used to verify internal program structures and functions. A context-independent test would verify that an algorithm works correctly for all possible inputs, for example.

The combination of context-dependent and context-independent testing methods provides the best coverage for your application’s requirements.

6. Bug-free software is a myth


The only way to ensure that your software is bug-free is through rigorous Testing.

This may sound obvious, but it’s important to understand that you can’t just test what you think is important—you have to test everything.

Whether you’re writing a new piece of code or adding features to an existing one, you must get feedback on how the product works in all scenarios, not just what you think will happen most often.

Software Testing Life Cycle

Software Testing Life Cycle

Software testing lifecycle is a process that involves several phases. The first phase is called requirement analysis, which includes gathering the requirements from the client and documenting them. Let’s dig deep into this.

1. Requirement analysis


The first stage in software testing is requirement analysis. The requirements are gathered and analyzed at this stage to determine what will be tested. The requirements may include functional, non-functional, and user acceptance testing criteria. They could also include performance requirements and testability requirements.

2. Test planning


Once you’ve determined what needs to be tested, you can begin planning your testing strategy. This involves defining an approach for each type of test that will occur during development. For example, unit tests (which test individual units), integration tests (which test how components work together), and system tests (which test entire systems).

3. Test case development


The test case is a document that describes what the tester will do to verify the software works as expected. The test case contains information about the product, its use, and what should be tested. The test case also includes testing procedures, including how the product will be tested and if there are any prerequisites for Testing. Test cases are created by test engineers, who collaborate with business analysts and developers to ensure they include all necessary details.

4. Environment setup


The environment setup is about setting up the development environment and preparing it for Testing. This includes installing the necessary software, configuring the system settings, and preparing the test data.

This step focuses on configuring and setting up the development environment to be able to run tests. This step’s main objective is to ensure that everything has been set up properly for us to start testing our application.

5. Test execution


In this step of the software testing life cycle, actual tests are run and evaluated against requirements previously defined by analysts during the requirement analysis and test planning phases. Test Reporting: In this phase of the testing process, testers report results back to management to make informed decisions about whether or not a product should be released or scrapped altogether because it doesn’t meet their quality standards.

6. Test cycle closure


The test cycle closure is the final phase of the software testing life cycle, where you wrap up all your test planning and documentation. You must ensure that your bugs have been fixed and that the product is ready to be shipped out to customers. This includes:

  • Sending feedback to stakeholders and developers on how the testing process has gone.
  • Identifying any issues that need to be addressed in future releases.
  • Reviewing your team’s performance.
  • Explaining how the product’s success was measured in this round of Testing.

Software Testing Categories:

1. Static Software Testing


Static Software Testing is a method of Testing that is done before the application is deployed for use. It is often done by a trained professional or team that reviews the code of the application, but it can also be done by anyone who knows how to read code. Static software testing aims to find any bugs or errors in the code before it goes live. This can be done through observation or during meetings with the code’s developers.

2. Dynamic Software Testing


Dynamic Software Testing is a method of testing software by executing it in a real-world environment, simulating the conditions the software will experience when it is used.

This process allows for more thorough Testing than a traditional approach, which would involve completing a separate set of tests for each possible scenario. Dynamic Software Testing allows developers to test real-world scenarios such as network connectivity issues, application crashes, and hardware failures. Dynamic Testing is software testing that is applied to a running system. It’s the process of evaluating software under real-world conditions and determining how it responds to different input types.

Dynamic Software Testing is an umbrella term for a wide range of tests and test types, including but not limited to:

Black box: Concerns about the software from the outside. It does not look at the code but rather the inputs and outputs of software. For example, if you want to test a calculator, it does not matter what is inside your program, but rather that if you put in natural numbers and press add, it will give you the sum of these numbers.

White box: Concerns about the software from the inside. It considers how the code works and what happens when certain commands are executed. For example, if you want to test a calculator, it is important to know how all its functions work to understand what happens when we press buttons on our device. This type of Testing is also called structural Testing because it allows us to see how our program is structured.

Ad Hoc: Ad hoc testing refers to tests that are not performed according to any formalized method or procedure; they are done ad hoc—”on the fly”—to ensure that some feature works as expected or desired.

Future of Software Testing

The future of software testing is a big question. What will happen, and how will it be different from now?

The good news is that the future of software testing is bright! The bad news is that it’s hard to predict exactly what will happen because no one knows exactly what the future will look like.

But we can make some educated guesses about what might happen in the future of software testing. Let’s take a look at some of those possibilities:

  1. As more companies adopt agile development practices, they will need more experienced testers working in an agile environment. This means there will be more demand for people who want to get into software testing but don’t have any experience yet—but also that those who do have experience will be in high demand.
  1. As AI becomes more common in our daily lives (and as it becomes easier for us to access), we will need more testers who know how to use AI effectively to test their products. This means that if you know how computers think and learn, this could be a great time for you to enter the field of software testing!


Testing is a vital part of software development. Hidden defects can cost a lot of money, and even worse, have caused harm and death in some cases. Software testing is used to find these defects and eliminate them before the software product is delivered to the client. With Ateam on your side, you can be assured that your software will never crash down. Also get web development services and mobile app development company


FAQ About Software Testing :

1. What are the primary Objectives For Testing in software development?

Answer: The primary objectives include identifying and mitigating software risks, ensuring functionality, and enhancing overall system reliability.

2. How do Objectives of Test contribute to effective quality assurance?

Answer: Objectives of Test help establish clear criteria for evaluating software performance, reliability, and functionality, ensuring a robust quality assurance process.

3. Why is it crucial to define specific Objectives For Testing before starting a project?

Answer: Defining clear objectives sets the foundation for a targeted testing strategy, helping teams focus on critical aspects, identify potential issues, and deliver a high-quality product.

4. Can Objectives of Test be adapted based on the nature of the software being developed?

Answer: Yes, Objectives of Test should be tailored to the unique requirements of each project, considering factors such as software complexity, user expectations, and industry standards.

Bijin Azeez July 13, 2018