With countless job openings and promising new technologies on the horizon. Web development will continue growing in popularity. Absolutely everything is moving to the web. Web assembly will soon allow you to play incredibly complex 3D games straight in your browser. Web 3.0 is connecting the web to the Blockchain. It’s never been a more exciting time to dive into the beautiful world of web development.
Starting with web development can be overwhelming. We will cover everything from the essential building blocks of the web all the way to the most modern web development technologies. Even if you’re an experienced developer by the end of this article, you’ll know precisely what you need to do to become an outstanding developer.
Web Developer Roadmap
To start with your web development journey, you’ll need two things. The first one is a web browser, either chrome or Firefox that you most likely already have. And the 2nd one is a code editor. There are plenty of options to choose from, still the most popular one is visual studio code. It’s free, easy to use and has amazing plugins, excellent community support and it’s the most widely used editor. Other options are Sublime Text, Atom and Vim. Of course our recommendation would be visual studio code.
That’s it, to start your entire web development career you only need these two tools, no expensive hardware or software is required. Now let’s dive into what you need to learn to become a web developer. The three main building blocks of the web that you need to learn are:
The first thing you have to learn when starting web development. Html is the fundamental technology used to define the structure of a web page. Learn the basics of html, like syntax, different html tags, forms, semantic Html, SEO best practices. After you learn all the basics of html that is where CSS comes to play.
CSS stands for cascading style sheets. It’s a way to style your html elements. It’s a style sheet language used to describe a documents presentation. For example, you use CSS to position things, to change the color, size, spacing of your elements. You can also animate stuff with CSS. So whenever you see some cool animations on a website that must be done using CSS. There is a lot to learn regarding CSS. So let’s start with the basics.
First of all the CSS syntax, then you need to learn about CSS selectors. Different ways to select html elements with class names, IDs, tags names etc. Then you need to learn how to position html elements across the page, difference between relative absolute fixed and sticky positions. Then you’ll need to learn about the CSS box model, how padding margins and borders on specific elements work. Another thing that you can learn about is CSS specificity. If two or more CSS rules point to the same element, the selector with the highest specificity value. well let’s say win and only its styles are going to be applied to that html element. Think of specificity as a score or a rank, determining which styles are going to be applied to an element. Once you learn these basics, you should keep practising your CSS skills by building small components like navigation bars and cards and of course style them to make them look better. You can learn and practice both. Html and CSS simultaneously.
When you’re done with CSS basics, learn about more valuable and complex things like flex box grid and responsive designs. Learn what pseudo elements are pseudo classes, learn to create animations, transitions and more. Practice your skills by building landing pages and websites and make them responsive. It’s not a problem. If you fail at first try again and you’ll succeed.
These CSS frameworks help you more easily create professional and consistent CSS designs without writing a lot of CSS on your own. But of course, you first have to learn the basics of CS to be able to fully understand what’s happening behind the scenes. And speaking of CSS frameworks, it’s also helpful to learn CSS preprocessors such as SAAS or SCSS. A CSS preprocessor as additional features that don’t exist in pure CSS. such as MIXINS, nesting selectors, inheritance selectors and so much more. These features make your CSS structure more readable and easier to maintain.
Aat this time you’ll start building some projects and you need to consider learning version Control system.
Version Control system
Version Control is essential because it allows you to keep track of your code base. Version Control software keeps track of every modification to the code in a special kind of database developers can turn back the clock and compare earlier versions if they make a mistake. There are many version control systems but the most popular and most widely used one is GIT.
GIT is the best and only version Control tool that most people use. Using GIT also becomes incredibly helpful when working with themes. The version control keeps tracking every individual change by each contributor and helps you from making conflicts. If you’re working with themes alongside GIT you have to learn about GIT hub. GIT hub is a code hosting platform. It lets you and others work together on projects from anywhere in the world. There are tons of free services that teach you how to deploy a static website such as Netlify, Vercel and Github pages. If you know everything we’ve mentioned so far you are a front end developer. But there are still some important things that you can add to your repertoire. One of these tools is a package manager.
Package managers are tools that automatically handle dependencies and plugins for you. For example,a package manager can install new or update existing packages with a single command.Because everything is automated, there is no chance for human error. The most popular package managers are NPM and Yarn. If you’re just starting, you should consider learning NPM. NPM is also an online database of mostly free packages called the NPM registry. Think of it as a store of already created code where you can download codes written by others.
But why would you use that?
Can’t we code ourselves?
Of course, we can. But why reinvent the wheel when it’s already been invented. Why solve a problem that has already been solved.
“ Library opposed to a framework simply provides you with a bit more freedom in how you want to get things done while frameworks have stricter code practices.”
When you first start learning react js, firstly you need to know about the following things, file structure, how everything works with react dom and a single html Div, react components, the difference between functional components and class components. Here’s a pro tip from now on. You should always use function-based components rather than class-based components. They are old and nowadays, functional components are most widely used. To be able to write react code. You need to learn jsx syntax, props, states, events and conditional rendering. Once you know, react basics, you should start learning about react Js hooks. The essential hooks are useState, useEffect, useRef, useContext, useReducer,useMemo and useCallback. Once you’re comfortable with all of these topics, try building some cool projects .
Alongside building projects learn a react UI kit. The most popular ones are materialUI, Antdesign, chakraUI. UI frameworks allow you to import and use different components to create a user interface in your react applications. That’s incredibly useful because it allows you to focus on the logic of your projects while still having consistent and professional designs. To make most out of react you’ll need to use some popular react packages as well. The most popular ones are reactrouter, style components and Axios. These are nothing more than simple NPM packages we’ve discussed before.
Once you get familiar with react gs and start creating bigger projects, you’ll naturally start doing everything with props that’s called props drilling. Are you sending props from a parent component to every other component in the application. We’ve all been there, but soon you’ll notice that your apps get bigger and bigger and they also start getting a lot messier and a lot less organized. Prop drilling refers to sending props from a higher level component to a lower level component. So it would be best if you considered using a state management tool.
The most popular one is redox. State management is simply a way to improve communication and data sharing across your react components. State management libraries are used to pass the props the Children components without prop drilling, making your code a lot simpler and much easier to understand.
And now you are a proficient react developer. What should you learn next? Well,
PWA – progressive web applications
These are applications that seem more like native mobile applications. They can work offline believe it or not and they can also receive notifications. Then you can learn how to work with web sockets. Web sockets will allow you to send data in real time. This is great for applications that need to update something instantly or for things like messaging applications, social media networks and streaming services.
Once you decide on your programming language, you can choose the framework according to that language. For node Js, you need to learn ExpressJs. And like react js for the front End, Express is going to allow you to create better applications more quickly.
You should at least know about these concepts. You don’t have to implement them for now but you should know what they are and how they work. And the concepts are http/https, APIs, rest API/GraphQLAPI, web sockets, CORS, MVC architecture, CI/CD and serverless.
As the name suggests, a database is a place where you store data. There are two types of databases. SQL and noSQL. SQL stands for structured query language. The popular SQL databases are mySQL, postgres and SQLlite. The most popular NoSQL database is Mongo dB. The Mongo DB database is also a part of the most popular programming stack which isMERn: MongoDB/ExpressJs/ React/Node. These are all of the technologies that we’ve already mentioned so far. But as you can see now, we’re combining both the front end and the back end to create something exceptional. By using these four technologies, you can create absolutely any application that you can think of, everything that exists in this world today.
There are some more tools you’ll need when working with databases such as ODM/ ORM, which are object document mapping and you need those to interact with the databases more easily. For Mongo dB the most popular ODM is mongoose. And I’ll just mention a few more essential things that you should learn authentication, which allows your user to log in and register all off, which is a simpler way of registration using some popular platforms like google login. Then you’ll need to learn about hashing or decrypt, which is going to allow you to encrypt your users passwords so that they don’t get leaked out to public. You’ll need to learn about rate limiting, reverse proxy, load balancer, documentation, postman.
Should you have any questions or need additional information, leave a comment and our senior developers will get back to you.